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Eight Tibetan Treasures,also known as the Eight Tibetan Fairies and Eight Auspicious insignias,are traditional patterns representing auspiciousness for the Tibetan people.They are brought together mostly in horizontal,vertical,round and square shapes.In some cases,all the eight treasures except for the Treasure Bottle are used to form a pattern.
They are seen mostly in monasteries,residences,paintings and books,as well as on religious objects,garments,kitchen utensils,saddles,carpets,boxes and hadas.No matter where they are found,they are composed of the following eight patterns.
Auspicious Knots:Created with ropes,such knots were first used by herders as adornments dangling from the waistbelt,before gradually being created with cloth,metal,wood and porcelain for use as adornments on garments,religious objects and in the home.They represent auspiciousness,unity and harmony,and the high attainment of Buddhism.
Auspicious Knot is different from Bazha Knot in terms of pattern and the number of ropes used.The The former is created with one rope,while the latter with three ropes.
Lotus Flower:As the lotus flower grows in mud but looks elegant,it is taken as symbol for those born in the world yet free of its contamination.In addition,the lotus flower symbolizes mild temperament and the ability to propagate Buddhism.It finds its wya into painting and carving,but in a way which is different from the actual lotus flowers.
Treasure Umbrella:The Treasure Umbrella is different from the umbrella and parasol used by the civilians.It originated in India.Legend has it that given sizzling weather in ancient India,business people used it as something to keep the sun off them.This gradually changed shape into an umbrella in the modern sense,used almost exclusively by the nobility and the king,while ordinary people were not allowed to use it.At this juncture,the umbrella was representative of power and wealth.When Sakyamuni,founder of Buddhism,was lecturing,Brahma and others used a silk umbrella adorned with pearls and a golden handle to shade him.They later presented it to Sakyamuni,so that from then on,such an umbrella became Treasure Umbrella used to block out greedy,angry,silly,slow and suspect factors.
Right-Turning Conch:Most conches have a left-turning spiral;only a small number are right-turning.When Sakyamuni turned the Buddhist Wheel for the first time in Mrgadava,a Right-Turning Conch was used to present him.From then on,the Right-Turning Conch has symbolized completion and auspiciousness and has become widely used in Buddhist circles.There are two kinds:Adorned Right-Turning Conches and Unadorned Right-Turning Conches.Unadorned Right-Turning Conches are generally placed above the qingke（highland barley）in the Main Hall,while the Adorned Right-Turning Conch is used for religious activities and blown by ritual lamas.Generally,such a conch is inlaid with gold and silver pieces of these is the Religious Conch Adorned with wings.
Golden Wheel:Legend has it that when Sakyamuni lectured on Buddhist doctrines in Mrgadava,Brahma and other presented a wheel(then used as a weapon)to him.From then on,the wheel is closely associated with Buddhism,representing Sutra-pitaka.
The Golden Wheel,also called the Religious Wheel,is not allowed to be used without the presence of the seven other treasures.Golden Wheel represents Buddhist doctrines.There are two explanations with regard t o it:
1、When the religious wheel is turned by the Wheel Prince,it is like Buddhist doctrines in dispelling evil and foul things.
2、When the founder of Buddhism lectures on Buddhist doctrines and the wheel turns incessantly,lecturing on Buddhist doctrines is likened to the wheel.
The Golden Wheel takes varied shapes,although these can be basically reduced to two:Golden Wheel inlaid in peach-shape pattern,sitting in a lotus flower;and Golden Wheel adorned with nothing,which is used widely in books,magazines,buildings and religious objects.
Golden Banner:The Golden Banner is also called the Victorious Banner and Treasure Banner.In ancient India,victorious troops often hoisted a banner amid wild joyous shouting as a token of celebration.With the rise of Buddhism,such banners became adopted by Buddhist circles to show solidarity,victory over evil and vigorous development.There are two kinds of banners.One takes the shape of a long tube,and is made of satin dyed in blue,white,red,green,yellow,blue,white,red and green stripes.It is topped with pearls and a trident spear,and used mainly in the Main Hall.The other is made of bronze sheets inscribed with spells,lion heads and tassels.Its top is a flame treasure taking the shape of a hexagon or a octagon,withe a bell dangling from each angle.Some are gilded to glisten brightly in the sun.The bronze banner is placed in the four corners and spots flanking the gate of the Mail Hall.
Treasure Bottle:Taking the shape of the golden urn used for the Gelug Sect to determine the reincarnated soul boy of the late Living Buddha by drawing lots from it,the Treasure Bottle represents the gathering of sweet dew,wisdom and satisfaction.
Gold Fish:This is different from the gold fish kept at home for appreciation.It is a kind of river fish with beard.It is also called Plateau Fish,with ‘green-like-jade wings and shining round eyes”and represents wisdom.
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provisions of paragraph
|Date of Cancellation||Charge Incurred|
|1 months in advance||20% of total trip cost, excludes the lost caused by refunding air tickets.|
|7 to 29 days in advance||50% of total trip cost, excludes the lost caused by refunding air tickets.|
|Less than 7 days in advance||100% of total trip cost, excludes the lost caused by refunding air tickets.|
|No show up||100% of total trip cost|
2、Cancellation 10 days before departure due to political reason or natural force,
No cancellation charge on local tour, but the lost caused by refunding flight tickets
and train tickets is on travelers.
the starting point or tourists specified
leading to the termination of the
cannot avoid the incident）,
paragraph 2 in article 9、paragraph 2 in article 10 and paragraph 3 in article 10 to
cancel the contract,bear by tourists.